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Early detection of breast cancer

Infrared Imaging can identify early signs of angiogenic processes

A revolutionary new method for early detection of neoplastic processes in the human breast—breast cancer—combines high-resolution functional infrared imaging with analytical software and facilitates meta-analysis of the extensive database facilitates identification of the “signatures” associated with physiological abnormalities in the breast.

The infrared imaging systems described in the Yannacone patents can provide substantially more clinical information about abnormal physiologic activity at an earlier stage in the evolution of neoplastic (cancerous) processes in the human breast than any of the static anatomical images provided by X-ray mammography, whether film or digital, or the other breast imaging systems presently available.

The non-invasive screening modality and, if necessary, the non invasive localization modality of the infrared Mammography system in the Yannacone patents does not expose patients to ionizing radiation or subject them to any of the pain and discomfort that characterizes X-ray mammography.

According to a recent National Cancer Institute (NCI) study, X-ray mammograms can miss an average of 20% of the breast cancers that are present at the time of screening and up to 50% of the cancers present in the denser breasts of women in their 40’s and younger. Additionally, X-ray mammography has a significant false positive rate.

Despite well-publicized claims to the contrary, a recent NCI study found that there is no difference in breast cancer detection rates between the older film-based X-ray mammography and the newer digital systems. In early testing, however, systems based on the Yannacone patents detected tumors and other breast anomalies with accuracy greater than that of X ray mammography, and with a considerably lower number of false positives.

A unique combination of sophisticated mathematical procedures to process and analyze a series of images of the infrared radiation emanating from the skin surface that result from physiological responses within the breast tissue in response to a thermal challenge created by a moving stream of room temperature air over the surface of the breast can identify and characterize statistically significant changes in the physiological response of the breast tissue.

Additionally, each time a patient has a infrared mammography examination, it can be compared to the patient’s previous exams stored the database and any changes between the current exam and any prior exams can be detailed.


Early detection of breast cancer is about physiology not anatomy!

Most methods of breast cancer screening, including X-ray mammography and MRI, are directed toward identifying anatomical structures within the breasts. The System detailed in the Yannacone patents identifies and characterizes physiological processes within the breasts. This is comparable to the difference between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). MRI can image anatomical structures within the body but fMRI can actually image biological processes within the body, rather than just the structures, which might be associated with those processes.

Analysis of the data collected during an infrared breast scan can be used to locate and identify abnormal physiological processes within specific areas of the breast tissue. There is a high degree of correlation between anomalous infrared emissions from the skin surface of the breast and specific physiological anomalies within the volume of breast tissue. The system described in the Yannacone patents permit identification of statistically significant anomalous patterns of infrared radiation from the surface of the breast which correlate with  neo-plastic disease processes within the associated volume of breast tissue.

The infrared mammography system permits identification of the vasculature within the breast and permits accurate location of statistically significant areas of anomolous thermal activity. Since the location of the bifurcations of the vasculature do not change over time with changes in mass and shape of the human breast, changes in statitical anomalies can be tracked over timefor signs of increasing activity or physical  growth.

19970922_comparison of images obtained by he differential methods

Physiological mechanisms of anomalous infrared emissions

There are several physiological mechanisms that can account for the association between anomalous infrared emissions from a particular area on the surface of the breast and some abnormal physiological process within the volume of breast tissue. Some of those mechanisms suggest that chemical messengers from neoplastic activity may influence the response of the superficial blood vessels of the skin to thermal challenge, while other mechanisms may be related to angiogenesis and the angiogenic activity necessary for tumor growth within the volume of breast tissue. Sympathetic nervous system control of the thermoregulatory process in the human body when confronting thermal challenge is also involved. Still other physiological and biophysical mechanisms may be recognized as the database grows.

The approach of the Yannacone patents to breast cancer detection is based upon detecting, distinguishing and classifying all possible physiological activity in the volume of breast tissue in response to a non-invasive, room temperature, convective thermal challenge. Within the limits of detector sensitivity, the System records the complete spectrum of the physiological response directly measuring the spatial and temporal variation in infrared emissions from the entire surface area of the breasts during a thermal challenge. Temporal histograms can represent the complete spectrum of physiological responses to the thermal challenge in both space and time.